Xogħol fuq pjattaforma diġitali: skjavitù modern?

Ilna ftit li bdejna nindunaw, bil-mod, li l-kundizzjonijiet tax-xogħol ta’ dawk assoċjati mal-pjattaforma diġitali lokali setgħu ma kienux adegwati.  Fi Frar li għadda, wieħed minnhom, Nepaliż ta’ 28 sena, kien involut f’inċident tat-traffiku fatali fil-Marsa waqt li kien għaddej fuq xogħolu, jqassam l-ikel.

Din mhiex xi ħaġa li tikkonċerna lilna biss, f’Malta.  Hi sitwazzjoni li hi ukoll taħt l-osservazzjoni tal-Unjoni Ewropeja li qed tikkunsidra l-introdużżjoni ta’ Direttiva, applikabbli fl-Unjoni kollha, “dwar it-titjib fil-kundizzjonijiet tax-xogħol fuq il-pjattaformi diġitali”.  

L-istudju dwar l-impatt ta’ din il-miżura, li ġie mfassal bħala dokument biex ikun ta’ għajnuna fid-deliberazzjonijiet meħtieġa, jemfasizza li uħud minn dawk li jaħdmu permezz tal-pjattaformi diġitali qed jiffaċċjaw kundizzjonijiet ħżiena ta’ xogħol u aċċess mhux adegwat għal ħarsien soċjali.  Uħud minnhom, jgħid l-istudju, huma b’mod żbaljat deskritti jew klassifikati bħala persuni li jaħdmu għal rashom. 

Bħala riżultat ta’ din id-deskrizzjoni ħażina dawn ġeneralment jitilfu ħafna mid-drittijiet jew protezzjoni li huma intitolati għaliha.   Dawn jikkonċernaw il-ħarsien dwar kemm jaħdmu siegħat, il-paga minima (inkluż il-bonus statutorju ta’ Ġunju u Diċembru), leave annwali bi ħlas, leave għall-mard, leave tal-ġenituri u ħarsien tas-saħħa u sigurtà fuq il-post tax-xogħol.

L-azzjoni industrijali tal-kurriera tal-ikel tal-Bolt il-ġimgħa l-oħra iffukat l-attenzjoni fuq il-qagħda ta’ dawk li jaħdmu permezz tal-pjattaforma diġitali. “Kważi ħadd ma jaf minn xiex ngħaddu biex inwasslu l-ikel malajr” kien ikkwotat jgħid wieħed mill-kurriera.

Hu fatt mhux daqstant magħruf li l-operaturi tal-pjattaforma diġitali konnessa mat-tqassim tal-ikel, minbarra li jiġbru l-ħlas dovut għat-tqassim jieħdu ukoll kummissjoni sostanzjali mingħand l-operaturi tal-istabilimenti tal-ikel li jservu. Xi kultant, jiena infurmat, li dawk il-kummissjonijiet jammontaw għal madwar it-30 fil-mija tal-valur tal-ikel li jkun qed jitqassam.  Ġibduli l-attenzjoni tiegħi li din il-kummissjoni kulltant tidher riflessa f’diskrepanza bejn il-prezzijiet li jidhru online u dawk li tista’ tara b’għajnejk fl-istabilimenti tal-ikel infushom!

Għandu jkun ċar li dawn il-flejjes mill-kummissjonijiet ma jispiċċawx għand il-kurriera li jkunu qed jiġru bil-muturi mat-toroq tagħna. Jispiċċaw fil-kont tal-bank tal-operaturi tal-pjattaforma diġitali!

Uħud mill-kurriera jitħallsu bir-rata miżera ta’ €2 għal kull vjaġġ bl-ikel, kultant inqas. L-iffurtunati fosthom kultant jitħallsu  €2.50 (jew ftit iktar) għal vjaġġ bl-ikel! Dan ifisser li jkun jeħtieġilhom li jaħdmu għal siegħat twal biex jistgħu kemm kemm jgħixu.  L-affarijiet huma bil-bosta agħar għal dawk meqjusa bħala  “indipendenti”, inkella b’mod falz deskritti bħala li jaħdmu għal rashom. Dawn jispiċċaw iridu jħallsu l-ispejjes li jkollhom huma ukoll. Jispiċċaw ħafna agħar!

Dan hu skjavitù tas-seklu wieħed u għoxrin. Skjavitù diġitali!

Wara l-azzjoni industrijali tal-ġimgħa l-oħra tal-kurriera tal-ikel tal-pjattaforma diġitali, uħud mill-istabilimenti tal-ikel kienu mħassba u fetħu ħalqhom għax dan effettwalhom il-but. Ħadd ma nduna li kienu b’xi mod imħassbin huma u jużaw dan is-servizz ta dawn il-kurriera imħaddma qieshom skjavi. Xejn ma iddejqu. Il-kuxjenza ma niggżithomx.

L-istabilimenti tal-ikel li jagħmlu użu mis-servizz tal-pjattaforma diġitali mhumiex direttament responsabbli għal kif din topera! Imma, l-fatt li jagħmlu użu minna jirrendihom kompliċi f’ din l-industrija ta’ skjavitù modern li qed tiżviluppa biex taqdi lilhom.

L-azzjoni industrijali tal-ġimgħa l-oħra fetħet għajnejn bosta, inkluż ta’ dawk li kienu qed jagħmluha tal-boloh, taparsi ma jafu b’xejn. Issa hu l-waqt għal azzjoni konkreta. Azzjoni li teħtieġ li anke l-konsumatur jieqaf milli jagħmel użu mis-servizzi ta’ dawk li qed jinkoraġixxu dan l-iskjavitù diġitali  modern.

ippubblikat fuq Illum : 7 t’Awwissu 2022

Platform work: digital slave labour?

The rumblings on the working conditions of those engaged in local digital platform work have been around for some time. Last February one of them, a 28-year-old Nepalese, was involved in a fatal traffic accident in Marsa when on a food delivery trip.

This is not just a local issue. The matter is also on the radar of the European Union which is considering the introduction of an EU wide Directive “on improving the working conditions in platform work”. 

An impact assessment drawn up as an EU Commission staff working document emphasises that some of those working through digital platforms face poor working conditions and inadequate access to social protection. A number of them, says the impact assessment, are falsely classified as self-employed. As a result of the misclassification of their employment status they tend to lose various rights and protections. These include rights relative to working time, minimum wage (including the statutory bonus payable in June and December), paid annual leave, paid sick leave, parental leave and occupational health and safety.

The industrial action by Bolt food couriers last week brought to light the plight of local platform workers. “Almost nobody knows what we must go through just so that they get their food quickly” one of the couriers was quoted as saying.

It is not so well known that the food courier platform operators, in addition to collecting the delivery charges, collect substantial commissions from the food outlets which they serve. At times, I am informed that this may be as high as 30 per cent of the value of the delivery food. It was pointed out to me that this commission charged is at times evident in a discrepancy between the prices quoted online and those displayed at the food outlets themselves!

It has to be underlined that these substantial commissions do not end up in the pockets of the food couriers but in the bank accounts of the platform operators!

Some of the couriers are paid at a miserly rate of €2 per delivery, at times even less. The lucky ones can get as much as €2.50 per delivery or slightly better! This signifies that they must work very long hours to try and earn a very basic income on which to exist. To make matters worse, in those cases where the couriers are “independent” or “falsely” classified as self-employed they end up paying their own expenses. As a consequence, they end up much worse off!

This is twenty first century slave labour. It is in fact digital slave labour!

After the industrial action last week, some catering establishments have voiced their concerns as the action taken by the food courier platform workers has at the end of the day impacted their bottom line too. I do not recall hearing their concern on utilising digital slave labour: they did so without qualms. They had no second thoughts or pangs of conscience.

The catering establishments are not directly responsible for the manner in which digital platform work operates. However, the fact that they make use of it renders them complicit in the slave labour industry being developed to satisfy their bottom lines. They make it possible.

Last week’s industrial action was an eye opener for all, including those who feigned ignorance as to what was going on. Now is the time for all round action. This must also include action on the part of consumers who should not use the services of those who keep encouraging and making use of digital slave labour.

published on The Malta Independent on Sunday : 7 August 2022

Fil-festa tal-Milied: l-ipokrezija madwarna

Għal uħud il-ġranet tal-Milied huma festa ta’ rigali u divertiment. Bonanza ta’ kummerċ.

Imma forsi hemm min hu konxju li l-Milied li nikkommemoraw ukoll bil-presepju hu ukoll okkazjoni ta’ reflessjoni dwar l-għar ta’ Betlehem: dwar kif u għaliex bnedmin iwarrbu u jistmerru lill-oħrajn.

Il-Milied hu ukoll il-festa tar-refuġjati u tal-immigranti madwarna maħrubin minn pajjiżhom għal elf raġuni: persekuzzjoni, faqar, tiftix ta’ ħajja aħjar.

Il-presepju hu xbieha ta’ familja li m’għandiex saqaf fuq rasha u sabitu fi stalla qalb l-annimali. L-istatwi fil-presepju huma riflessjoni ta’ din ir-realtà li għadha magħna u tibqa’ minkejja kull progress li niftaħru bih.

F’dawn il-ġranet tal-Milied aħna u nosservaw il-biżibilju presepji fil-gżejjer Maltin ikun tajjeb jekk nirriflettu ftit kif naħsbuha fuq ir-refuġjati u l-immigranti fostna.

Il-Milied it-tajjeb.

L-ambjent u l-ġustizzja soċjali

e-waste-africa

Il-ħsara ambjentali teffettwa lil kulħadd, imma b’mod speċjali tolqot iktar lil dawk li huma vulnerabbli. L-esperjenza tal-ħajja ta’ kuljum, imsaħħa bir-riċerka turi li l-agħar effetti tal-ħsara ambjentali jġarrbuhom l-aktar nies foqra. Per eżempju, n-nuqqas jew it-tniġġis tal-ilma jolqot l-iżjed lil dawk li huma l-aktar foqra, li għalihom ix-xiri ta’ flixkun ilma ħafna drabi hi spiża żejda. U meta f’diversi pajjiżi għola l-livell tal-baħar dan laqat l-ewwel lill-foqra li kienu qed jgħixu fi griebeġ mal-kosta, u li ma kellhomx iktar fejn imorru.

M’aħniex konxji biżżejjed tal-problemi li jolqtu lil dawk li huma mwarrba mis-soċjetà. Illum ma nistgħux ma nagħrfux li l-impenn ambjentali irid jieħu ukoll dimensjoni soċjali. Dan għandu jdaħħal diskors dwar il-ġustizzja fid-diskussjonijiet dwar l-ambjent, biex nifhmu dejjem iktar li l-karba tal-art hi ukoll il-karba tal-fqir. Il-ħsara ambjentali hi l-kawża ta’ inġustizzja soċjali.

Flok jindirzzaw il-problemi tal-foqra uħud iwaħħlu fiż-żieda fil-popolazzjoni u jippruvaw ma jagħtux importanza lill-konsumiżmu estrem u selettiv tas-soċjetà moderna. B’hekk jippretendu li jilleġittimizzaw il-mudell ta’ distribuzzjoni tar-riżorsi li għandna llum, fejn hemm minoranza li temmen li għandha dritt tikkonsma fi proporzjon li qatt ma jista’ jiġi applikat fuq livell universali, għax il-pjaneta bilkemm l-iskart ta’ konsum bħal dan ma tkun kapaċi żżomm.

Iktar minn hekk, terz tal-ikel li nipproduċu qed jinħela: l-ikel li jintrema qed jinsteraq minn fuq il-mejda tal-fqir. Iż-żieda fil-konsum taf twassal għat-tlaqqigħ flimkien ta’ problemi marbuta mat-tinġis ambjentali, il-mezzi ta’ trasport, it-trattament tal-iskart, il-qerda ta’ riżorsi, u l-kwalità tal-ħajja.

Jeżisti “dejn ekoloġiku” bejn il-pajjiżi żviluppati u dawk inqas żviluppati. Dan id-“dejn ekoloġiku” hu marbut ma’ żbilanċ fil-kummerċ b’konsegwenzi fil-qasam ekoloġiku, kif ukoll mal-użu sproporzjonat tar-riżorsi naturali storikament imwettaq minn xi pajjiżi. L-esportazzjoni ta’ xi materja prima biex tissodisfa s-swieq tal-pajjiżi industrijalizzati ħalliet warajha ħafna ħsara ambjentali, bħal, per eżempju t-tinġis bil-merkurju fil-minjieri tad-deheb jew bid-dijossidu tal-kubrit fil-minjieri tar-ram.

It-tisħin ikkawżat mill-konsum enormi ta’ xi pajjiżi għonja għandu riperkussjonijiet fl-ifqar postijiet ta’ din l-art, speċjalment fl-Afrika, fejn iż-żieda fit-temperatura flimkien man-nixfa għandha effetti diżastrużi fuq l-agrikultura.

Ma’ dan inżidu r-rimi ta’ skart tossiku f’pajjiżi li qed jiżviluppaw minn intrapriżi ibbażati f’pajjiżi żviluppati. Dawn jagħmlu fil-pajjiżi mhux żviluppati dak li m’huwiex permess li jsir f’pajjiżhom.

Ġeneralment, meta jwaqqfu l-attività tagħhom u jitilqu, iħallu warajhom ħsarat kbar umani u ambjentali, bħal qgħad, irħula bla ħajja, il-qerda ta’ ħażniet naturali, deforestazzjoni, tifqir fil-biedja u fil-merħliet tal-post, ħofor kbar, għoljiet imħarbta, xmajjar imniġġsa u xi opra soċjali li ma tiflaħx tieqaf iktar fuq riġlejha”.

Din hi s-sejħa li tagħmlilna l-art. Hi s-sejħa tal-fqir li hu ukoll misruq mill-ġid li tagħtu n-natura biex biex bih jistagħna ħaddieħor. Il-ħsara ambjentali hi l-kawża ta’ inġustizzji soċjali kbar li lkoll isiru f’isem l-iżvilupp. Għax fl-aħħar huma dawk l-iktar vulnerabbli fostna li l-iżjed iħossu l-konsegwenzi tal-qerda ambjentali li qed isseħħ madwarna. Għalhekk kull pass il-quddiem, (żgħir jew kbir), li nagħmlu biex inħarsu l-ambjent ta’ madwarna huwa pass biex innaqqsu l-inġustizzji ta’ madwarna.

 

(kummentarju li xxandar fuq l-RTK it-Tnejn 4 ta’ Jannar 2016, ibbażat fuq il-paragrafi 48 sa 51 tal-enċiklika Laudato Sì tal-Papa Franġisku)

Solidarjeta’ u Sliem

solidarity 

Dawn il-ġranet huma jiem ta’ solidarjeta’ u sliem.  Mhux xieraq li nuża l-ispazju għal argumenti u polemiċi. Avolja anke is-solidarjeta u s-sliem huma sors ta’ polemika.

Is-solidarjeta’ u s-sliem huma l-unika sinifikat veru ta’ dawn il-jiem li tul is-snin ġew ikkapparrati minn sens qawwi ta’ konsumiżmu u xalar li jmorru lil hinn minn dak li hu aċċettabbli.

Il-Milied it-Tajjeb lil kullħadd.

oriġinalment ippubblikat fuq iNews it-Tnejn 23 ta’ Diċembru 2013

Pope Benedict XVI : Laying the Groundwork for a Sustainable Civilization ?

by Gary Gardner

Published by Worldwatch Institute on April 15, 2008

Rumour has it that Pope Benedict may address climate change during his visit to the United Nations this week. Whether he does or not, his young papacy can claim to be the “greenest” ever. Benedict has identified extensive common ground between sustainability concerns and a Catholic worldview – adding weight to the argument that the world’s religions could be instrumental in nudging policymakers and the public to embrace sustainability. Now, the Pope has the opportunity to further develop the links between sustainability and religious values, markedly advancing thinking in both arenas.

Benedict’s predecessor, John Paul II, made important environmental statements during his long papacy, but Benedict is the first “green pope.” Last year, the Vatican installed solar panels on its 10,000-seat main auditorium building, and it arranged to reforest land in Hungary to offset Vatican City’s carbon emissions, making it the world’s first carbon-neutral state. And Benedict has repeatedly urged protection of the environment and action against poverty in a number of major addresses. His next encyclical (major papal teaching), due out this summer, is expected to further wrestle with environmental, social, and other themes of interest to the sustainability community.

As he embraces these themes, Benedict and the larger Catholic community could play an especially valuable role in helping to address two major influences on the environment that get too little attention today: consumption and population. (A third, technology, already receives high levels of policy focus.)

The consumption question should be comfortable ground for a modern Catholic pope, given the longstanding social and spiritual critique of consumerism in Catholic thought. For example, Pope Paul VI, in his 1967 encyclical Populorum Progressio, linked heavy consumption to injustice, declaring that, “No one may appropriate surplus goods solely for his own private use when others lack the bare necessities of life…. The earth belongs to everyone, not to the rich.”

John Paul II added a spiritual dimension in Centesimus Annus in 1991, critiquing “a style of life which is presumed to be better when it is directed towards ‘having’ rather than ‘being,'” and urging people to “create life-styles in which the quest for truth, beauty, goodness and communion with others for the sake of common growth are the factors which determine consumer choices, savings and investments.” The Church’s spiritual and social teachings are rich complements to modern environmental arguments against consumerism.

Benedict’s challenge is to move longstanding Church teaching into concrete action. Despite the extensive archive of papal statements on the subject, there is no evidence that Catholics consume less or differently than anyone else. Yet given that 40 percent of the human family lives on less than $2 a day while the prosperous among us consume casually and wastefully, Catholic leadership in redefining “the good life” away from accumulation and toward greater human wellbeing and solidarity with the poor cannot come soon enough.

Benedict will need to be creative in persuading the comfortable in his Church to take consumption teachings seriously. The dramatic equivalent of solar panels on a Vatican rooftop may be needed to move prosperous Catholics to critically assess their own consumption-and to find joy in consuming less.

The other issue, population, is more difficult for a Catholic leader to tackle, especially one with Benedict’s reputation for doctrinal strictness. For Benedict and most Catholics, human reproduction is a domain infused with questions of deep personal morality. But a pontiff who appreciates the epochal nature of the sustainability crisis must surely also recognize the moral challenges raised when human numbers grow exponentially in a finite world.

How much of modern hunger, disease, poverty, and environmental degradation can be blamed on population sizes that have exceeded the carrying capacity of local, regional, and global environments? The share is unknowable, but surely not small. The challenge for Benedict will be to apply his formidable intellect to harmonize the personal and social ethics of population issues.

Benedict’s interest in sustainability issues comes not a moment too soon. The sustainability crisis is civilizational in scope and depth-and therefore a natural concern for a global institution like the Catholic Church. Should Benedict raise the twin issues of consumption and population to the level of theological and spiritual attention they deserve, he would not only advance thinking on religious ethics-but also on how to create just and environmentally sustainable societies.

Gary Gardner is a senior researcher at the Worldwatch Institute, an environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C. He is the author of the book Inspiring Progress: Religions’ Contributions to Sustainable Development.